Donald Trump has signed an executive order authorising sanctions against foreigners who meddle in US elections.
US national security adviser John Bolton told reporters on a conference call the Departments of State and Treasury would decide on appropriate sanctions to recommend and impose.
Sanctions would include freezing assets, limiting access to US financial institutions, and prohibiting US citizens from investing in companies involved.
Trump has been widely criticised for not taking threats to the US electoral system seriously enough, particularly Russian interference in the 2016 presidential race.
This latest move is believed to be part of an attempt to address concerns raised by US intelligence agencies that Russia is seeking to interfere in the 2018 elections.
Mr Bolton said the executive order will help stem disinformation campaigns or any attempt to manipulate the outcome of ballots.